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Living Organisms - Terms & Definitions Biology Presentation - Living Organisms

 

Terms & Definitions

Nutrients – these are the substances that enable all living organisms live and function normally.

Respiration – this process releases energy. Cells in the organism would die if this process were to stop. Respiration requires oxygen.

Movement – animals move by using their muscles, and plants move by growing.

Reproduction – this is the process by which organisms produce offspring to keep their species alive.

Excretion – this is the removal of waste products from the organism.

Response to stimuli – organisms must respond to the environment around them.

Control of internal conditions – this is a process known as homeostasis. An organism can not survive or function without this process.

Growth and Development – this is where an organism’s size and body mass will increase until they are an adult.

 

Classification

Classification is where certain types of organisms are split into groups, depending on their characteristics.

All living organisms are split into five main groups:

1.Prokaryotes or bacteria

2.Protoctists or single celled organisms

3.Fungi

4.Plants

5.Animals

These groups are split up into groups called species. To identify which main group and which species an organisms comes from, each species is given a Latin name that has two parts. The first part of the name is the general group which the organism comes from, for example animals. The second part of the name identifies which species the organism is from.

 

Animals

Animals are one of the five main groups of living organisms.

They are multicellular organisms and their cells do not have a protective wall.

Animals are also unable to make their own food, like plants, they have to rely on other ways of getting their food, for example, hunting or scavenging. Animals can be split into two main types of species. 1.Vertebrates – these are any animals who have a back bone. 2.Invertebrates – any animals who do not have a back bone.

 

Vertebrates

There are five main groups of vertebrates:

1.Fish – salmon and cod.

2.Amphibians – frogs and toads.

3.Reptiles – lizards and turtles.

4.Birds – eagles and sparrows.

5.Mammals – humans and elephants.

1.Crustaceans – crabs and lobsters. 2.Insects – flies and bees. 3.Arachnids – spiders and scorpions.

Plants are multicellular organisms. Unlike animals, their cells do have a protective wall. Plants are able to make their own food, via a process known as photosynthesis. They do this with the help of chloroplast which is found in plant cells. There are four main groups of plants:

1.Mosses. 2.Ferns. 3.Conifers. 4.Flowering Plants.

Mosses

Mosses are small soft plants that grow mostly in areas that are wet or damp and receive plenty of rain water.

Mosses do not grow very large because they do not have a vascular system that most other species of plants have. The vascular system is responsible for transporting water within the plant.

This type of plant usually group together because they are unable to stand upright, this means that they have to support each other.

They have a waxy film that surrounds them, this helps prevent water from evaporating. You are most likely to find mosses in areas that do not get a lot of sunlight.

 

Ferns

Ferns, unlike mosses, have a vascular system and are therefore able to transport water through out their structure.

Ferns differ from other types of plants, because they do not produce seeds in order to reproduce. They reproduce using spores, when these spores are released, the wind carries them.

The spores from the fern need a moist area in which to start growing.

There are around 12,000 species of fern in the world.

 

Conifers

These are plants that have needle-like leaves. There are around 600 species of conifers.

Pine trees are a type of conifer.

Conifers are able to produce a resin that covers their trunks and protects them from insects or fungi that may attack them.

 

Flowering Plants

These types of plants can be anything from herbs to trees. They produce seeds, which are usually protected from harm inside a fruit, for example, a berry.

Flowering plants can be divided into two main groups:

1.Monocotyledons – daffodils, grass and wheat.

2.Dictotyledons –buttercups, peas and beans.

Flowering plants have:

Roots that anchor them into the ground and are used to absorb water and mineral salts from the soil, via tiny hairs that surround the outside of the roots.

Stems which branch out, holding as many leaves as possible. They also hold the flowers which are responsible for reproduction. Stems have strengthened tissue which forms a ring around the edge of the stem to protect it from breaking off.

Leaves are responsible for photosynthesis. They also have small holes which are known as stomata and are used during gas exchange.

Flowers secrete nectar to attract insects which pollinate plants.

 

Fungi

There are two main types of fungi:

1.Yeast – this is a single cell which is able to link together to form a chain. Yeasts cell wall is made of chitin and it can be found in soil, dust and in water.

2.Moulds – these are fine, thread like structures. They produce spores for reproduction.

They feed by secreting digestive enzymes onto their food, these enzymes breakdown the food into molecules that are small enough to pass into the fungi. This process is known as extracellular secretion.

 

Bacteria

Bacteria are single celled organisms that have a cell wall to protect them and help them keep their shape.

Some species of bacteria produce a layer that surrounds them, acting as extra protection against harm.

All species of bacteria have a nucleus. This is where their genetic information or DNA is located.

 

Protocists

Protocists do not fit into a particular group of animal, plant or fungi species. They can be found in many of the groups of organisms.

Types if protocists include: 1.Amoeba 2.Clorella 3.Plasmodium 4.Algae

 

Viruses

Viruses can only reproduce inside of another living organism. This living organism is known as the host. All of the cells within the host can be invaded and infected by the virus.

They are able to live in plants, animals and bacteria.

Viruses are not separated into species, like plants and animals, this is because viruses are not made of cells. They are made up of a protein layer that covers a molecule of nuclear acid. The nuclear acid contains the DNA that is used when the virus reproduces.

Viruses can also be referred to as parasites.

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